Key Words : Electric Arrow, Grid Capacitor, professors about Paul Baumann disks.
Electric accumulators of excess energy
of artificial plasma instability —
the energy abyss of humanity
VG Sapogin 1 , NN Prokopenko 1 , AE Panich 2
1 Don State Technical
University Gagarina, 1, Rostov-on-Don, 344000, Russia
2 Institute of High Technologies and Piezotechnics ,
Southern Federal University
st. Milchakova, 10, Rostov-on-Don, 344090, Russia
Modern energy is very diverse both in terms of energy extraction methods, and in terms of the cost of human resources and money. Even the extraction of the primitive energy of coal requires numerous human sacrifices, not to mention the high cost of one gigawatt of atomic energy, expressed in lost human lives.
Habitual energy is built along a chain: first you need to take or store the energy of some physical process, convert it into heat, or into mechanical movement. In the next step, heat or motion can either be used immediately or converted into electricity and piezoelectricity.
Approximately 40 years ago, Swiss engineers cut a window into a new direction in energy. They simply broke the energy chain mentioned above and proposed a new way of extracting electrical energy, which seemed to be something unimaginable and incomprehensible. They managed to build a small installation, very similar to an electrophore machine, but in which there were no brushes that remove the charge. At the initial moment, you need to spin the disk (s) of the installation and it immediately begins to generate electrical energy, at first glance, as if from nothing. To stop its operation, it is necessary to mechanically stop the rotation of the disks.
Inventor Paul Baumann calls his devices Testatika Machine M/L Converter from religious group “Methernitha” (address: Methernitha, CH-3517 Linden, Switzerland, phone: ++41 31 97 11 24) further Testatika. His community, for religious reasons, does not take out a patent for these devices, does not pay anything to the electric companies supplying the town of Linden, and does not want to sell these devices in Switzerland and on the market. Currently, it has built several different 100W, 300W, 3kW and 10kW units that are used by the community for their own production.
The first information about how the installations are arranged appeared in Austria in 1989. Their description can be found in the book by Professor Stefan Marinov . The professor’s research on low-power devices (as commissioned by the community) amazed him so much that he began to doubt the fundamental nature of any conservation laws known in physics.
These doubts are surprising, since in nature there are many physical systems in which the law of conservation of energy is fulfilled quite accurately (take at least celestial mechanics). But this does not mean at all that there are no systems in nature in which conservation laws are not fulfilled. There are many such systems, especially with dissipation. The presence of dissipation did not allow mankind to build a perpetual motion machine using mechanical motion.
A new electromechanical physical system combines a simultaneously rotating motor and a generator that separates the charges. While the disk is spinning, it continuously releases energy, that is, the system has a positive energy increment. The excess energy generated during the period of the system’s motion turns out to be sufficient to cover all dissipative losses that exist in the installation during the same period.
Unfortunately, neither the inventors themselves nor Professor Marinov were then able to give a convincing explanation for the chain of physical phenomena occurring in Testatika. As far as we know, no one has yet been able to repeat such an installation, despite the fact that its detailed color drawings have been posted on the Internet by the Russian laboratory Faradey — Lab for the past 15 years. In the monograph [2,3], one can find additional technical details and some ideas on the implementation of the Testatik setup based on the unitary quantum theory of an oscillating charge.
But, is it such a new electromechanical system proposed in Switzerland? As can be seen from the installation drawing , its main unit is an oscillatory circuit, in which fixed U-shaped capacitor plates are used as electric capacitance. Inside the plates of the U-shaped capacitor, one or two acrylic disks rotate, with a set of conductive sectors radially pasted on them from a thin foil (see Fig. 11 on p. 28 in ). The rotation of the disk with conducting sectors periodically changes the electrical capacitance of the U-shaped capacitor within certain limits. Changing the capacitance of the U-shaped capacitor and led to an increase in excess energy in Testatika.
Rice. 1. Fragment of the machine «Testatika»
On fig. 1 shows a schematic fragment of an acrylic disk with a U-shaped capacitor. On fig. 1 are marked: 1 — an acrylic disk with conductive sectors glued to it, 2 — one conductive sector (electric arrow), 3 — plates of a U-shaped capacitor. The top of the figure is a front view of the fragment, and the bottom is a top view.
The physical properties of such a system were first studied in Russia in the 1930s by Mandelstam and Papaleksi . They carried out their first experiments on oscillatory circuits in which an air condenser was used. He had one of the plates was fixed, and the second rotated at a constant angular velocity by an electric motor, the rotational speed of which could be changed.
What did they discover? The mechanical rotation of one of the capacitor plates has always led to the fact that an electrical charge accumulates on the capacitor plates until the air capacitor breaks through. On the face, the same effect as in the Testatika and the electrophore machine. They discovered the direct conversion of mechanical energy into electrical energy with a positive energy increment.
But try to explain what happens to the energy of a periodically changing capacitance included in an oscillatory circuit that is under constant voltage? Why is it growing? And are there any cases when there is no increase in energy on the capacitance?
A modern theoretical physicist, who has an excellent knowledge of the fundamental laws of electrostatics, will explain that there can be no additional release of energy in such an oscillatory circuit. The reason for this is that all static charges accumulated on the capacitor plates are stationary, and during rotation they move along closed trajectories. All distributed charges accumulated by a movable capacitor plate can be represented as an atmosphere consisting of point charges that are stationary relative to the plate. The movement of a point charge in 4
an inhomogeneous electrostatic field along the same closed circuit does not change its energy for a complete revolution and does not perform any work. (theorem about circulation of static electric field strength). Theorist is absolutely right. But the experiment points to something unexpected: the mechanical rotation in the considered system can be converted into electrical energy, which then accumulates until the capacitor breaks down. Then the theoretician, who does not know how to explain the experiment, declares everything that happens to be pseudoscience.
Maybe there is something we don’t know or don’t understand in this situation? Perhaps, in explaining these experiments, it is impossible to apply the fundamental theorems that are valid for electrostatic fields?
Mandelstam and Papaleksi also did not find a satisfactory explanation for the resulting increase in energy, buried the incomprehensible in the term «parametric resonance» and proposed a new scientific direction for the creation of parametric alternating current generators, which are currently implemented in radio engineering and microwave technology. And the direction of research, the most interesting for the future energy industry, remained unnoticed.
Over the past 30 years, experiments have been carried out in physical laboratories in many countries on the flow of powerful, short electrical pulses in various conducting media (see, for example, [5–6]). Luminous objects were recorded, localized in space and measuring from millimeters to centimeters. The illumination time of the object increased with the increase in its volume.
The researchers noted the macroscopic separation of charges arising inside the object, held in a limited region of space by a self-consistent electric field. It has been experimentally found that it can be in three different states of electrification: electrically neutral, positively charged and negatively charged. The listed properties of the object allow it to be attributed to the class of plasmoids and microplasmoids.
For the first time, the time process of formation of a chain of plasmoids (bead lightning), in the presence of an external direct current, was proposed in . We simplified the mathematical model constructed in  for the case of no external current and studied the phenomenon of plasma instability during the formation of single plasmoids.
The study of static solutions of the model indicates the possibility of the existence of three types of plasmoids in a two-component plasma: electrically neutral, positively charged (electron cluster in a hole plasma), or negatively charged (electron cluster in an electron plasma), which coincides with observations.
Non-static solutions of the model point to the following time sequence of plasmoid formation during the development of electrical instability. At some point in time, a space-limited region with electrically neutral plasma appears in the atmosphere. Then, an electrical instability rapidly develops in the plasma, which eventually forms a single either positive or negative plasmoid. The plasmoid charges are held in space by a self-consistent field.
The electrical energy accumulated by the plasmoid is emitted into the atmosphere and it ceases to exist as an object. In order to take away the electrical energy accumulated by the plasmoid before the flashing, it must be created artificially inside the plates of the U-shaped capacitor, as is done in Testatika.
Each conducting sector, pasted radially on a circle, is an electric arrow (see Fig. 1). It differs from the magnetic one in that in the free state it indicates the direction of the external electric field strength and at high external field strengths it has a sufficiently large electric dipole moment. The greater the length of the arrow and the greater the strength of the external field, the greater the dipole moment of the electric needle.
When an arrow enters an external electric field, plasmoids are artificially formed at its ends. The positively charged plasmoid will be at the «north» end of the arrow, and the negatively charged plasmoid at the «south» end of the arrow. The charges accumulated by the plates of a U-shaped capacitor are usually opposite in sign to the charges of the arrow, but at some moments they may coincide.
The location of the electric arrow at an angle to the axis of the U-shaped capacitor immediately creates a moment of electric forces, which tends to attract the ends of the arrow to the electrodes and return the arrow to the equilibrium position. Turning the arrow at the same angle in the other direction creates the same moment of forces, but in a different direction. In order to understand how this moment of force creates a rotation of the disk with conducting sectors in one direction, it is necessary to take into account the following extremely important circumstance.
In Testatics, the interaction of the charges of an artificial plasmoid with the charges of a U-shaped capacitor is not described by the Coulomb interaction. As is known, the mathematical model of the Coulomb interaction is built only for point charges, which are not realized in nature, and is not applicable to distributed charges.
We assert that two body forces act on each element of the volume of an extended like-charged body located in an external non-uniform electric field. The first electric f = p E , which should be summed over all charges of the arrow plasmoid, and the second, related to the field pressure gradient, which is proportional to f 1 = E divE /4π and acts on the local location of the plasmoid charge mass density .
Biforce interaction of extended charged bodies has asymmetry. The law of the dependence of the force of interaction of two similarly charged bodies on distance is one, and the same oppositely charged bodies is another. This is due to the different directions of action of forces: electric and gradient.
Therefore, when the end of the electric arrow approaches the plate of a U-shaped capacitor, its charges are attracted to the plate. The atmosphere of charges at the end of the arrow at each next moment of time changes its shape and structure. The self-consistent electric fields of the system depend on time and do positive work on the needle.
Approaching close to the capacitor plate, the arrow is discharged through the smallest distance of the gas gap and changes the signs of the charges at its ends. The force of interaction of the ends of the arrow with the plates of the capacitor immediately changes. It jumps up and becomes repulsive. The moment of electric force does not change its direction in space and continues to rotate the wheel with conducting sectors in the same direction, again doing positive work. Micro-discharges lead to the appearance of dry crackling and the formation of ozone, which is observed in Testatika.
This is how the Testatika motor works. On this principle, it is possible to create a variety of rotary motors and micromotors of direct and alternating current of a new generation.
If the discharge of the arrow on the plates of the U-shaped capacitor does not occur, then the moment of electric force changes its direction in space and begins to return the arrow to the equilibrium position. In this case, the movement of the pointer, finite in angle, will be implemented.
How the Testatics generator works becomes clear from the above discussion. At the moment of discharge of an electric arrow on the plates of a capacitor, its dipole electric moment changes its direction to the opposite in milliseconds. A change in the dipole moment will always lead to a change in the electric induction vector in the same space. And this, in turn, will generate the Maxwell displacement current density vector, which is proportional to the rate of change of electrical induction j cm =d D / d t.
Since the U-shaped capacitor is in the circuit and is closed to the inductance, then a short pulse of the Maxwell bias current will cause a short pulse of the same conduction current in the inductor. A sequence of conducting sectors moving periodically in the plates of a U-shaped capacitor, against the background of a direct current, will generate an alternating pulsed current. It will periodically supply excess energy to the system. On the basis of the second principle of operation of Testatika, it is possible to build a new generation of electromechanical alternators.
The excess energy supplied by the generator will be sufficient both to create a high voltage on the plates of the U-shaped capacitor and to compensate for the dissipative losses of the system. All other electrical elements used in Testatika should be attributed to its cumulative part. They can be different for different installations.
Innovative direction of dual-use energy,
using variable electric fields of plasma instability for energy production, is a powerful alternative to the method of generating electricity based on the Faraday electromagnetic induction effect. The reason for this is that such energy uses the physical properties of the electric field, which turns out to be primary in relation to the magnetic field.
The presented concept of excess energy of plasma instability has undoubted advantages: simplicity, environmental friendliness, mobility, cheapness, autonomy, compactness, a wide range of output powers obtained from «nothing». It does not «require» human sacrifice.
After the publication of the abstracts, educated homo sapience will begin to assemble energy installations in their garages and with excessive excess energy will have time to burn the last Earth Civilization long before the Second Coming of Christ.
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